Introduction to CadQuery

This page describes basic CadQuery concepts and goals. CadQuery is still under development, but already offers a lot.

Goals and Principles

Principle 1: Intuitive Construction

CadQuery aims to make building models using python scripting easy and intuitive. CadQuery strives to allow scripts to read roughly as a human would describe an object verbally.

For example, consider this object:

_images/quickstart.png

A human would describe this as:

“A block 80mm square x 30mm thick , with countersunk holes for M2 socket head cap screws at the corners, and a circular pocket 22mm in diameter in the middle for a bearing”

The goal is to have the CadQuery script that produces this object be as close as possible to the english phrase a human would use.

Principle 2: Capture Design Intent

The features that are not part of the part description above are just as important as those that are. For example, most humans will assume that:

  • The countersunk holes are spaced a uniform distance from the edges
  • The circular pocket is in the center of the block, no matter how big the block is

If you have experience with 3D CAD systems, you also know that there is a key design intent built into this object. After the base block is created, how the hole is located is key. If it is located from one edge, changing the block size will have a different affect than if the hole is located from the center.

Many scripting langauges to not provide a way to capture design intent– because they require that you always work in global coordinates. CadQuery is different– you can locate features relative to others in a relative way– preserving the design intent just like a human would when creating a drawing or building an object.

In fact, though many people know how to use 3D CAD systems, few understand how important the way that an object is built impact its maintainability and resiliency to design changes.

Principle 3: Plugins as first class citizens

Any system for building 3D models will evolve to contain an immense number of libraries and feature builders. It is important that these can be seamlessly included into the core and used alongside the built in libraries. Plugins should be easy to install and familiar to use.

Principle 4: CAD models as source code makes sense

It is surprising that the world of 3D CAD is primarily dominated by systems that create opaque binary files. Just like the world of software, CAD models are very complex.

CAD models have many things in common with software, and would benefit greatly from the use of tools that are standard in the software industry, such as:

  1. Easily re-using features between objects
  2. Storing objects using version control systems
  3. Computing the differences between objects by using source control tools
  4. Share objects on the internet
  5. Automate testing and generation by allowing objects to be built from within libraries

CadQuery is designed to make 3D content creation easy enough that the above benefits can be attained without more work than using existing ‘opaque’, ‘point and click’ solutions.

3D Topology Primer

Before talking about CadQuery, it makes sense to talk a little about 3D CAD Topology. CadQuery is based upon the OpenCascade kernel, which is uses Boundary Representations ( BREP ) for objects. This just means that objects are defined by their enclosing surfaces.

When working in a BREP system, these fundamental constructs exist to define a shape ( working up the food chain):

vertex:a single point in space
edge:a connection between two or more vertices along a particular path ( called a curve )
wire:a collection of edges that are connected together.
face:a set of edges or wires that enclose a surface
shell:a collection of faces that are connected together along some of their edges
solid:a shell that has a closed interior
compound:a collection of solids

When using CadQuery, all of these objects are created, hopefully with the least possible work. In the actual CAD kernel, there are another set of Geometrical constructs involved as well. For example, an arc-shaped edge will hold a reference to an underlying curve that is a full cricle, and each linear edge holds underneath it the equation for a line. CadQuery shields you from these constructs.

CadQuery Concepts

CadQuery provides functions several key areas. As you would expect, many are devoted to easy creation of 2D and 3D features. But just as many, if not more, are for navigating and selecting objects.

  • CQ, the CadQuery object
  • Workplanes
  • Selection
  • 2D Construction
  • 3D Construction
  • construction geometry
  • easy iteration

CQ, the CadQuery Object

The CadQuery object wraps a BREP feature, and provides functionality around it. Typical examples include rotating, transforming, combining objects, and creating workplanes.

See CadQuery API Reference to learn more.

Workplanes

Workplanes represent a plane in space, from which other features can be located. They have a center point and a local coordinate system.

The most common way to create a workplane is to locate one on the face of a solid. You can also create new workplanes in space, or relative to other planes using offsets or rotations.

The most powerful feature of workplanes is that they allow you to work in 2D space in the coordinate system of the workplane, and then build 3D features based on local coordinates. This makes scripts much easier to create and maintain.

See Workplane to learn more

2D Construction

Once you create a workplane, you can work in 2D, and then later use the features you create to make 3D objects. You’ll find all of the 2D constructs you expect– circles, lines, arcs, mirroring, points, etc.

See 2-d Operations to learn more.

3D Construction

You can construct 3D primatives such as boxes, spheres, wedges, and cylinders directly. You can also sweep, extrude, and loft 2D geometry to form 3D features. Of course the basic primitive operations are also available.

See 3-d Operations to learn more.

Selectors

Selectors allow you to select one or more features, for use to define new features. As an example, you might extrude a box, and then select the top face as the location for a new feture. Or, you might extrude a box, and then select all of the vertical edges so that you can apply a fillet to them.

You can select Vertices, Edges, Faces, Solids, and Wires using selectors.

Think of selectors as the equivalent of your hand and mouse, were you to build an object using a conventional CAD system.

You can learn more about selectors Selectors

Construction Geometry

Construction geometry are features that are not part of the object, but are only defined to aid in building the object. A common example might be to define a rectangle, and then use the corners to define a the location of a set of holes.

Most CadQuery construction methods provide a forConstruction keyword, which creates a feature that will only be used to locate other features

The Stack

As you work in CadQuery, each operation returns a new CadQuery object with the result of that operations. Each CadQuery object has a list of objects, and a reference to its parent.

You can always go backwards to older operations by removing the current object from the stack. For example:

CQ(someObject).faces(">Z").first().vertices()

returns a CadQuery object that contains all of the vertices on highest face of someObject. But you can always move backwards in the stack to get the face as well:

CQ(someObject).faces(">Z").first().vertices().end() #returns the same as CQ(someObject).faces(">Z").first()

You can browse stack access methods here Stack Methods

Chaining

All CadQuery methods return another CadQuery object, so that you can chain the methods together fluently. Use the core CQ methods to get at the objects that were created.

The Context Solid

Most of the time, you are building a single object, and adding features to that single object. CadQuery watches your operations, and defines the first solid object created as the ‘context solid’. After that, any features you create are automatically combined ( unless you specify otherwise) with that solid. This happens even if the solid was created a long way up in the stack. For example:

Workplane('XY').box(1,2,3).faces(">Z").circle(0.25).extrude()

Will create a 1x2x3 box, with a cylindrical boss extending from the top face. It was not necessary to manually combine the cylinder created by extruding the circle with the box, because the default behavior for extrude is to combine the result with the context solid. The hole() method works similarly– CadQuery presumes that you want to subtract the hole from the context solid.

If you want to avoid this, you can specified combine=False, and CadQuery will create the solid separately.

Iteration

CAD models often have repeated geometry, and its really annoying to resort to for loops to construct features. Many CadQuery methods operate automatically on each element on the stack, so that you don’t have to write loops. For example, this:

Workplane('XY').box(1,2,3).faces(">Z").vertices().circle(0.5)

Will actually create 4 circles, because vertices() selects 4 vertices of a rectangular face, and the circle() method iterates on each member of the stack.

This is really useful to remember when you author your own plugins. Workplane.each() is useful for this purpose.